Tuesday, 4 July 2017

COSMIC Calendar .

COSMIC Calendar 

Scale in which lifetime of Universe is mapped onto a calendar year . That is Big bang took place on cosmic January 1 at precisely midnight , and today's data and time is December 31 at midnight .

Cosmic calendar of the Universe .

Big bang to the present state of the Universe .

Big bang and the galaxy cluster formation .

Cyanobacteria - 2,80,00,00,000 years old - Oct -18

Eukaryotic cells - 2,00,00,00,000 years old - Nov - 18

First fish , Arandaspis - 47,00,00,000 years old - Dec 19

First tree , Archaeopteris - 37,00,00,000 years old -
Dec 22

Our last fish Ancestor, Acanthostega - 36,50,00,000 years old -
Dec 22


First animal who walk on earth , lchthyostega
- 36,20,00,000 years old - Dec 22 . 


Permian - Triassic extinction event - 25,10,00,000 years old -
Dec 25

Jurrassic life , Age of Dinosaurs -
18,00,00,000 years old - Dec 27

Cretaceous - Tertiary extinction event - 6,55,00,000 years old -
Dec 30 .

Placental mammals , Eomaia - 12,50,00,000 years old
Dec 28 .

Australopithecus - 35,00,000 years old -
 Dec 31 .21:45

Homo erectus - 20,00,000 years old -
Dec 31 . 22:43 .

Homo sapiens - 1,95,000 years old - Dec 31 , 22:53 .

Sumerian civilisation build the first city - 6,000 years old -
Dec 31 . 23:59:46

Invention of writing
 Dec 31 . 23:59:48

Great pyramid of Giza - Dec 31 , 23:59:49 .

Stonehenge - Dec 31 , 23:59:50 

Code of laws - Dec 31 . 23:59:51


Iron age - Dec 31 .23:59:53 

Age of Pericles - Dec 31 , 23:59:54

Alexander the Great - Dec 31 , 23:59:54  

Maya civilization - Dec 31 , 23:59:56

Carolingian renaissance- Dec 31 , 23:59:57 

Magna carta - Dec 31 , 23:59:58

Typography - Dec 31 , 23:59:58 

Issac newton - Dec 31 , 23:59:59 

French revolution - Dec 31 , 23:59:59 

Industrial revolution - Dec 31 , 23:59:59 

Albert Einstein - E=MC^2 -
Dec 31 , 23:59:59 

World war 1- Dec 31 , 23:59:59 

World war 2 - Dec 31 , 23:59:59

Atomic bomb - Dec 31 , 23:59:59 

DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid , Dec 31 , 23:59:59

Man on moon - Dec 31 , 23:59:59 

Gulf war , Dec 31 , 23:59:59 

Cloning - Dec 31 , 23:59:59

11 September attack on twin towers ,
Dec 31 , 23:59:59 

Global warming - Dec 31 , 23:59:59

Graphical representation - 3D pie - All the occurrences based on %age .

Graphical representation - Tabular representation based on % age.

Carl Sagan words : We humans appear on the cosmic calendar so recently that our recorded history occupies only the last few seconds of the last minute of December 31st .
In the vast ocean of  time which this calendar represents all our memories are confirmed to this small square (the last day).
Every person we have ever heard of lived somewhere in there , all those kings and battles , migrations and inventions wars and loves .
Everything in the history books happens here , in the last 10 seconds of the cosmic calendar .

We on earth have just awakened to the great oceans of space and time from which we have emerged .
We are the legacy of 15 billion years of cosmic evolution .
We have a choice :
We can enhance life and come to know the universe that made us , or we can squander our 15 billion years heritage in meaningless self-destruction .
What happens in the first second of the next cosmic year depends on what we do , here and now with our intelligence and our knowledge of the cosmos .

 Universe was created in BIG BANG , and it is transformed into building up of complex life as we know it today .
Did life was created in the beginning – was universe alive since its beginning ? Or else Life was created in the process of transformation .
Intelligent life was created on Earth , what was once a stardust has now been transformed into beings of this beautiful planet called Earth . Alien intervention can be a possible guess for injecting the seeds of life on Earth , perhaps creating a complex brain structure

We perhaps the most insignificant on the time scale of the universe and what we know is very little about our elegant universe . 

Years agoCalenderTimeOccurances 
13,70,00,00,000                           Jan -01Big bang
13,30,00,00,000Jan-11First stars began to shine 
13,20,00,00,000Jan-15Birth of galaxies
7,00,00,00,000Jan-29Milkyway galaxy formed
4,60,00,00,000Aug-31Solar system formed
4,52,70,00,000Sep-03Moon formed
4,00,00,00,000Sep-17First life formed on earth , bacteria .
2,30,00,00,000Nov-01Oxygen atmosphere began to develop
2,20,00,00,000Nov-03First ice age
2,00,00,00,000Nov-08Eukaryotic cells
54,20,00,000Dec-17First microscopic organism
47,00,00,000Dec-19First fish , Arandaspis
40,00,00,000Dec-21Iapetus ocean disappears 
37,00,00,000Dec-22First tree , Archaeopteris 
37,00,00,000Dec-22Link between fish and tetrapods , Eusthenopteron
36,50,00,000Dec-22Our last fish Ancestor, Acanthostega 
36,20,00,000Dec-22First animal who walk on earth , lchthyostega
25,60,00,000Dec-25Permian life , mammal like reptiles 
25,10,00,000Dec-25Permian - Triassic extinction event 
18,00,00,000Dec-27Jurrassic life , Age of Dinosaurs
12,50,00,000Dec-28Placental mammals , Eomaia 
6,55,00,000Dec-30Cretaceous - Tertiary extinction event
5,00,00,000Dec-30The first primates
60,00,000Dec-3120:10Humans and chimps lineages split
30,00,000Dec-3122:05First hominis to move from forest to savannah , Meat eating begins
20,00,000Dec-3122:43Homo erectus
2,80,000Dec-3123:49Complex stone tools
1,95,000Dec-3123:53Homo sapiens
35,000Dec-3123:58Cave art
15,000Dec-3123:59:25The first calender
10,000Dec-3123:59:37Agriculture , first villagers 
6,000Dec-3123:59:46Sumerian civilisation build the first city
Dec-3123:59:48Invention of writing 
Dec-3123:59:49Great pyramid of Giza
Dec-3123:59:51Code of laws
Dec-3123:59:52The Ten commandments 
Dec-3123:59:53Iron age
Dec-3123:59:54Age of Pericles
Dec-3123:59:54Alexander the Great
Dec-3123:59:55Roman Empire
Dec-3123:59:56Maya civilization
Dec-3123:59:56Byzantine empire
Dec-3123:59:57Great wall of China
Dec-3123:59:57Carolingian renaissance
Dec-3123:59:58Magna carta
Dec-3123:59:58Mongol Empire - Genghis khan
Dec-3123:59:58The hundreads year war
Dec-3123:59:58Black death
Dec-3123:59:58Leonardo da Vinci
Dec-3123:59:58Discovery of America
Dec-3123:59:59Magellan first circumnaviagtion of the earth
Dec-3123:59:59Galileo Galilei
Dec-3123:59:59Spanish Armada deafeated in the English Channel
Dec-3123:59:59The thirty years War
Dec-3123:59:59Issac newton
Dec-3123:59:59Tsar Peter the great of Russia
Dec-3123:59:59Declaration independence 
Dec-3123:59:59French revolution 
Dec-3123:59:59Battle of Waterloo 
Dec-3123:59:59Spring of Nations
Dec-3123:59:59Industrial revolution
Dec-3123:59:59Charles darwin The origin of Species - 1882
Dec-3123:59:59Karl Benz - First automobile
Dec-3123:59:59Womens rights 
Dec-3123:59:59The birth of cinema
Dec-3123:59:59Wright brothers - First aeroplane
Dec-3123:59:59Einstein - E=MC^2 
Dec-3123:59:59World war 1
Dec-3123:59:59Russian revolution 
Dec-3123:59:59World war 2
Dec-3123:59:59Atomic bomb
Dec-3123:59:59First computer
Dec-3123:59:59European Union
Dec-3123:59:59Vietnam War
Dec-3123:59:59John F Kennedy 
Dec-3123:59:59Man on the moon
Dec-3123:59:59The fall of the Wall 
Dec-3123:59:59Gulf war
Dec-3123:59:5911 September attack on twin towers
Dec-3123:59:59Global warming

     References .    



Monday, 29 May 2017

Nemesis Star Theory .

Nemesis Star Theory .

Nemesis is a hypothetical red dwarf (or) brown dwarf which is believed to be orbiting around the sun at a distance of 95,000 AU (1.5 light years ) .   
Nemesis - According to its english meaning its a cause of punishment or defeat that is deserved and which can never be avoided . 
Nemesis orbit - Outside of the solar system .

Nemesis . 

Periodicity of Mass Extinction 

In 1984 paleontologist David Raup and Jack Sepkoski have claimed that there were statistical periodicity in the mass extinctions for a period of 250 million years .They have studied based on the fossil remains of vertebrates, invertebrates, and protozoans, identifying 12 extinction events over the time period .
Time period of extinctions were 26 million years . 
They have now found extinction rate of 27 million years (The change from 26 to 27 million years is expected based on a 3% "stretch" in the geological timescale since the 1980s )

Graphs showing the mass extinction in a period of 250 million years . 

Its believed that Dinosaurs had mass extinction . 

The Nemesis Hypothesis

Astronomers and scientists have believed that there may be a undetected companion star to our Sun - sun's evil twin . 
This star orbits in highly elliptical orbit in oort cloud , this causes the increase in the number of comets visiting the inner solar system and which may have hit the earth causing the mass extinction . 

Nemesis Orbit . 

Orbit of Sedna .

Sedna is believed to be a dwarf planet orbiting at a distance of about 86 AU from the Sun . Sedna's orbit is estimated to last for around 12000 years . Its surface composition is similar to some trans-neptunium objects and mixture of water , methane and nitrogen ices with tholins . 
Sedna never comes to close to sun to be affected by sun nor does it goes farther away to be affected by other stars . Its believed that this orbits is caused by the presence of Nemesis . 

Sednas orbit compared to other orbits .

Orbit of Tyche

It is a hypothetical gas giant located in the solar system Oort cloud . It orbits at a distance of 2.2×1012 km from the Sun . This would have orbital period of 1.8 million years . 
Nemesis is also believed to affects Tyches orbit . 

Tyche orbit .

Searches for Nemesis .

Nemesis in infra-red is important because cooler stars shine more brightly in infrared light . 
  • University of California's Leuschner Observatory failed to discover Nemesis in 1986 .
  • Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) failed to discover Nemesis in 1980 .
  • 2MASS astronomical survey , which ran from 1997 to 2001 failed to detect . 
  • WISE ( Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ) mission : If Nemesis was a red / brown dwarf , it was expected to be detected by WISE because it can detect 150 Kelvin Brown dwarf at about 10 light years . 
There were many failed observation , thats why this is just a theory and we need practical evidences to prove its existence . 

References .