Wednesday, 25 February 2015

THE FABRIC OF COSMOS : ( Part 1 of 4 )

 What is Space ? 

This world is filled with stuff's that we see around . 
Space in which all these things / stuff's exists . 

If we take all the stuff's away , for example : - People , car etc ... and also even largest objects like planets to the smallest of subatomic particles . Then empty space is left , this is not nothing but it is something

Matter removed from earth

                             Empty space  left behind when the matter (      Earth ) is removed .


                   Planet  Earth .

But space can be bent , twisted and even rippled . 
Empty space forms world around us . 
Space is actually everywhere from atoms to galaxies . 

    Empty space in the vastness of the COSMOS ( UNIVERSE ) . Space in between the stars and        galaxies . 

                              Empty space shown in an hydrogen atom ( Microscopic scale ) .

                                     Empty space in an atom . ( Microscopic scale ) . 

If we remove all the space from the large object it will become very small . 

A large building with all the matter and space . 

         When space is removed from the mass ( large building ) , then this tiny mass is left behind .

Spinning in empty space . 

If in spinning when arms are stretched it is spinning with respect to space itself . 

      Spinning in air while arms is stretched , spinning with respect to the emptiness of space itself .   

Issac Newton . 
We still use Newton's law based on space mission and etc . 

Space is real even if we can't feel it . 

In 1800's Albert Einstein changed everything about space . 

What is light ?
What is the speed of light ? 

Consider a moving car . 

                                                Car moving at the normal speed . 

                                            Car moving at the speed of light . 

Moving car doesn't give extra push to the light .( Headlight of the car ) 
Light speed is always constant for everyone . 
Moving at the speed of light makes the car become tiny ( compressed ) and moves slower in time for the observer outside the car , but for person sitting inside it appears to be normal . 
" Space-time forms a fabric . " 

                                                                  Space - time fabric . 

Space - time are flexible . Then Einstein called it space - time . 

Einstein applied this to gravity .
Then how did gravity worked ?

After 10 years of work Einstein explained the gravity , Gravity is even more flexible .

 Space - time fabric . Here object are bound to the central object due to the curvature of the space . 

            Earth is revolving around the Sun due to the curvature of the space - time fabric .  

Earth revolves around space-time fabric which Sun creates. 
" These described entire Universe , space plays a leading role and space is fabric and flexible " 

Black holes have large mass and a strong gravity . 

A black hole named Cygnus X-1 . It is formed when a large star caved in . This black hole pulls matter from blue star beside it . 

Gravity Probe B . 

Gravity Probe B ( GP - B) is a satellite-based mission which launched on 20 April 2004 on a Delta 2 rocket. The spaceflight phase lasted until 2005 , its aim was to measure space-time curvature near Earth , and thereby the stress-energy tensor (which is related to the distribution and the motion of matter in space ) in and near Earth . This provided a test of general relativity , gravito magnetism and related models .

Total cost of project : $ 750 million . 

Gravity probe B comprised four London moment gyroscope and a reference telescope sighted on HR8703 .

Space is real like a fabric .
No space then there will be no twist .

Quantum world . 

Smallest objects like sub-atomic particles .
Even if we remove all space its still far from empty .
Particles erupt (or) appears from nothing . Particles emitted from nowhere .

In 1948 a scientist named Henry Casmir predicted , if two plates placed extremely closed to each other then the thickness of a paper .

II : Very thin spacing in between the plates A and B . Space I and III pushes the plates until they merge .
Actually particles are present in the space I and III which pushes the plates in the Quantum world .

When these plates placed parallel to each other in Quantum world , with the emptiness between the plates . Then the particles outside the plates push the plates until they merge .

CERN Geneva . 

 LHC  : Large hadron collider is a $ 10 billion dollars project . 
It is a particle accelerator , where particles move at 99.99 % of speed of light . 

                                        Particles colliding at 99 % of speed of light .

   In 1964 Peter higgs said .
   All particles have different masses and why so ?

   " Space is like  ocean , particles gain mass when they interact with this ocean . "

     Particles which moves with great difficulty in the space gains more mass and hence gravity         compared to the ones which moves easily .
Higgs-field is everywhere even in emptiness of space , but there is no physical proof for Higgs field .

                                         Higgs particle and Higgs field . 


Universe expanded in a fraction of seconds . 
Gravity eventually stopped the speed of expansion . 
Will space expand forever ?
Will gravity slows and big crunch will happen ?

                                    BIG - BANG model of the UNIVERSE . 

                                   BIG - CRUNCH model of the UNIVERSE . 

Super-Nova is a very rare event which occurs with an explosion which is very bright .

                                                       Super - Nova explosion . 

It was confirmed by Telescope that Universe was expanding . Dark energy pushes ( 70 %  of Universe is Dark - Energy ) .
70 % is empty space in Universe .

                                         Dark Energy pushing the Space apart . 

Einstein gave a cosmological constant to solve the big-bang and big-crunch problem in order to get the static Universe ( Antigravity ) .
Later Einstein said it was a mistake , his greatest blunder .

                               Cosmological constant Lambda as shown in the equation . 

" Hubble proved that Universe was expanding , thus Einstein's cosmological constant was removed      and it was called his greatest blunder . "

Cosmological constant may explain expansion of Universe .
Dark energy pushes further apart until Universe is alone and empty - space is left behind .
Even atoms rip apart because of increase in dark energy in space .

             Graphical representation of the expansion of the UNIVERSE . 

Space can be a hologram . 

If object falls into the black hole it forms a 3D information inside it , where it is completely lost . 
Even if the information of object is held in the 2D at the surface of black holes . 

                                                             Black hole .

Universe can be a Hologram . 

 3D information may be present inside the Universe and 2D information is present outside the Universe . 

"3D is an illusion or 2D is the ultimate reality ??? "

                                                     Holographic Universe . ( 0's and 1's information ) 

" Space is a familiar stranger . 
   space is all around us but we are still far from having unmasked its true reality . "

Thursday, 19 February 2015

The Elegant Universe : ( Part 3 of 3 ) .

Part - 3 of 3  ( Welcome to the 11 th Dimension ) . 

How to control space and time ?

All the things are made up of tiny strings .
When we bend space-time we can create wormholes .

                             Wormhole formed by tearing the fabric of space-time and connecting it . 

        " According to String theory Einstein was not always right . "

Rips in space-time fabric . ripping a hole in the space-time continuum

                                           Rips in space - time fabric . 
                            " Strings can protect the rips in the space-time fabric ."

What are the hidden dimensions ?
 There are tiny strings vibrating inside Quarks .

Different types of vibrations of strings gives different types of matter.

Its necessary to master vibrations of strings .

"   *** There were 5 types of strings theory ?   "

Edward witten :- A conference held in 1995 .
He gave new prospective of string theory .
Edward said its just " 5 different ways of looking the same theory " . 

Here comes the new " M-Theory " . 

Normally there are 10 dimensions .

1 time dimension  ( T )
3 spacial dimension . ( X , Y, Z )
6 other small-scale dimensions ( Microscopic )

                                                           3 spacial dimensions  (X , Y, Z ) . 

                                                            4 th dimension Time ( T )

                                      6 dimension Calabi Yau space structure  ( Microscopic ) . 

But according to M- Theory there are 11 - Dimensions .

When there are more dimensions there are more degrees of freedom .

When strings are stretched they form membrane (or) brane .

This was a 3-dimensional approach .
These had a lot of energy and thus had a large size ( size of the Universe )
High dimension of space.

Consider a dough of bread . 

                                                                        Dough of bread .

Slices of bread . 

Here one slice may form one UNIVERSE .

                                              Consider this as a UNIVERSE .

Consider these Parallel slices of bread as parallel UNIVERSES . ( Extra dimensions ) .

                                                          Parallel slices of bread . 

Considering these slices of bread these forms extra dimensions .

Newtons gravity " Apple " -> An important force of Nature . ( G ) .

Magnets has E.M ( Electro magnetic ) force .

E.M   >>>  G 

1 X 10 ^ 39   >>>  1   

E.M  is greater then Gravity by 1 followed by 39 zeros .

Why can't we feel strength of Gravity ?

                                                                 Snooker .
   While playing snooker the sound waves are produced that are like gravity waves .

Why Gravity was so different ?

Strings are tied to 3 - Dimensional membrane .

                                                Open and closed strings . 

                                                          Strings encircling Graviton .

Graviton appears in other dimensions and hence is weak in the present dimension .

Hence Gravity is very weak in present dimensions .

At the instant of Big - bang all physical laws breakdown .

Physical laws breakdown at the instant of big bang . 

It is sometimes suggested that Big-band did not happen at all by String - theory . 

                                                    Membrane Universes ( Parallel ) .

When these membrane collide then BIG-BANG occurs , because energy of collision should go somewhere .

                                                           Colliding membranes .

They collide many times and hence many times Big - bang occurred .

Can string theory solve Big - bang ?

Detecting the evidence of Strings . 

In FERMI-LAB , Atom smashers .

                                            Atoms collide to give Graviton .

FERMI - LAB :- Located in the border of France and Switzerland .


                                                           FERMI - LAB 

CERN :- Atom smasher .

 It is 7 times stronger than FERMI - LAB .

                                       CERN : - LHC   ( large hadron collider ) 

*** Super - symmetry .

In particle physicssuper symmetry (SUSY) is a proposed extension of spacetime symmetry that relates two basic classes of elementary particles:bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.[1] Each particle from one group is associated with a particle from the other, called its super partner, whose spin differs by a half-integer. In a theory with perfectly unbroken super symmetry,

Each pair of super partners shares the same mass and internal quantum numbers besides spin  . 

Since no super partners have been observed yet, super symmetry must be a spontaneously broken symmetry if it exists . 

If super symmetry is a true symmetry of nature, it would explain many mysterious features of particle physics and would help solve paradoxes such as the cosmological constant problem .

Do sparticles exists ?

FERMI   v/s   CERN .

Still we need 10 - 20 years for clear understanding of atom - smashers .

Is still string - theory right (or) wrong ?

Still how many years to wait ?

Everytime we looked closer to UNIVERSE we discovered new truth .

String theory , Extra - dimensions , sparticles . etc ........