Monday, 23 March 2015

THE FABRIC OF COSMOS : ( Part 4 of 4 )

Universe (or) Multiverse ? 

A city may be a home to many million people all may be unique .
Uniqueness were never questioned .

                                                                  People in the City .

But nothing is Unique .
It can be the duplicates of everything and where are they ?
Our Universe may not be alone but other Universes may have been born all the time .

                                                           Multiverse : Many Universes .

All may differ with the other , but some similarities even exists .
Multiverse may be the final step of COSMOS .

                                        Bubble Universes : Every disk is a bubble Universe .

Aristotle showed that earth is the center of the Universe .

                                                   Aristotle Earth centered Universe .

Galileo and Copernicus showed sun is the center of the Universe .

                                                              Sun centered Universe . 

  Multiverse may require drastic changes (or) else is it the dead end ???
 How did the idea of multiverse came from ???

Big-bang occured round 14 billion years ago .
As a result universe still expanding .
How did big-bang happen ?
Hence here came the idea of multiverse .

                                                                      Big-bang explosion .

Alan Guth at MIT in 1974 showed .
How particles form in early Universe ?

Extreme environment at the very early stages of Universe , gravity can be reversed instead of attraction it was repulsive .

                                                 Galaxies forming with the molecule .

Then space expanded and obeyed big-bang theory .
He called big-bang's as inflation .

                                        Alan Guth's Inflation model of the UNIVERSE . 

Inflation could be tested in night sky .
If we remove all the things in night sky we find the energy remains of the big-bang called COSMIC Microwave Background . 

                                           COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND .

       Cosmic microwave background at its temperature changes . ( Hotter and colder parts :          Imprints ) .

Cosmic microwave background resembled the imprints .

In 1989 - NASA tested inflation .
Temperature on the COSMOS mapped to the " Theory of inflation " .
This was a milestone discovery .
Equations had a shocking secrets of existence of the MULTIVERSE .

Andrei Linde proposed a more eternal chaotic inflation . .

Chaotic inflation occurs in a much broader class of theories, without any need for the assumption of initial thermal equilibrium. The basic principles of this scenario became incorporated in most of the presently existing realistic versions of inflationary theory. Chaotic inflation changed the way we think about the beginning of inflation.

                                              Andrei Linde Eternal chaotic inflation .

How did inflation start ?
What will happen at the end of inflation ?

Some parts may still have inflation , so it was considered that many big-bang occurred .
Every new big-bang when occurs then a new Universe forms .
They called it External Inflation .
External Inflation may continue forever .

                            Cheese ( Consider this as Universe before the stars formed ) .

                                                                        Small cheese .

                                                                         Big cheese .

Here energy is discharged in space when the small cheese is converted to big one .

" E is converted to m . Energy is converted to mass . "

Hence the birth of Universe big-bang .

Space sometimes expands slowly .
Here a cheese is cut before everything formed even the stars .

THE FABRIC OF COSMOS : ( Part 3 of 4 )

Quantum Mechanics .

These unlocked the mystery of how the Universe works .

New laws have transformed world .

Laws of Quantum mechanics which differ from the laws applied to massive objects .
These laws are applied to smaller / tiny microscope things .

Quantum laws are more obvious at atomic world .
They may be telling the reality .

Classical mechanics were old laws by newton .

                                            Prism splits the light into its constituents . 

Neil's Bohr model . 

The Rutherford-Bohr model (or) Bohr model , introduced by Niels Bohr in 1913 , depicts the atom as a small , positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus - similar in structure to the solar system , but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity .
Definite orbit of electrons only .
Electrons orbits in definite orbits only and free will is not allowed .

                                        Bohr atomic model .

Quantum leap .

When electrons travel from lower orbit to higher it absorbs light : packets of energy (Quanta) . Discrete packets of energy which are quantised , light is emitted in "quanta" .

                                             Hydrogen atom .   

                                                        Energy of photon emitted .

                                     Energy emitted as per Bohr's atomic model . 

 Bohr and Einstein were naturally on a argument over quantum world and relativity .

Famous double slit experiment . 

In 1920's famous double slit experiment was performed . 
When beam of electrons were passed through two slits instead of two patches of images there came alternating dark and light patches . 

                                                       Double slit experiment . 

Thus particles were considered to travel in the form of waves . 
Wave nature of light . 

                                                         Wave nature of light . 

                                                 Double slit wave nature of light . 

Schrodinger derived a wave equation . 

                                                       Schrodinger equation .

Max born suggested that may be probability , were the wave is higher there electrons are more . 
Were we find dark patches there wave is higher and concentration of electron is higher . 

Exact position of electron was unknown . 

Its all about probability .
Probability of winning in a Casino , its a game of chance . 

All the Universe is made up of atoms which are governed by probability . 

Einstein did not believe probability and called it " God does not throw dice " . 

Inventions in electronics was due to Quantum mechanics .
Without Quantum mechanics its was all dark ages . 

Bohr's double slit experiment was a probability of finding particles ( Act of measurements ) 

Einstein thought something was missing form " Quantum mechanics " .

In 1935 Einstein proved " Entanglement " . 

                                                      Quantum Entanglement . 

 Quantum entanglement : is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the Quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently—instead, a quantum state may be given for the system as a whole.

Particles remain entanglement even when they are separated over long distances . 

                                             Entangled pairs with opposite spins .

Two particles have opposite spin , but they are not physically connected . 
If we know the spin of one electron then it can be said the other electron must have opposite spin even if they are separated by a long distances . 
This can be just like pair of gloves .

                                                             Left and Right Gloves .

If left is at one place then other should be Right , however long distance they are separated .
Quantum entanglement works just this way if one spin is known then immediately other spin is known .

Quantum mechanics was considered " Philosophy" .

John Bell book solved Einstein and Bohr conflicts .

How do we communicate between entanglement particles ?

John Francis Clauser graduate student read John Bell book , he was surprised and proved math is right and entanglement is possible . 

Can entanglement transfer people from one place to another without actually travelling through space ?
Is Teleportation the Future ?

Photons - Particles of light . 

A pair of photons were made to prove entanglement . 

                                                        Quantum Teleportation .

Atom B and Atom C are entangled and separated by a greater distance .

Consider Human as example . (Teleportation) .

    Human is scanned to form a part particles .

                                    Particles formed as a result of Scanning . ( Location : Newyork ).

                              Human appearing at the other side from the scanned particles .
                                                               ( Location : London ) .

Here a scanner scanner scans the human body and converts it to corresponding particles at a certain location like : Newyork , and then this particles is teleported to London .
Reconstructed in London by measuring quantum state .
Information traveled long distance .

MIT -> Manchester Institute of Technology .

They are developing Quantum computers which speaks in bits (0/1) .

Quantum bits => 0 to 1 .

                                                               Quantum Computation .

Probability of getting out and to explore the position by quantum computers .

May be some details are missing in Quantum mechanics .

                                                                    Quantum Level .

Quantum world may prove many Parallel Universe .

Discovery of Quantum mechanics has revealed reality for understanding the " FABRIC OF COSMOS " .

Tuesday, 3 March 2015

THE FABRIC OF COSMOS : ( Part 2 of 4 )

The illusion of Time . 

 How does the time flow ?
  What is time ?

 Cesium clocks 

These are the most accurate commercially produced time and frequency standards , and serve as the primary standard for the definition of the second in SI ( the metric system ) . 
Cesium clocks are used to measure time . 

   F1 the master Cesium clock at NIST in Boulder , Colorado . Location : Boulder , CO        Photographed  : 17 April , 2009 .

                                                                   Cesium atomic clock . 

When we travel then we take time as the origin and consider all the events on the scale of time . 

             Basic time scale where distance moved is measured with the passage of time . 

Newton's picture of time .
Time runs same for all the objects in the entire Universe . 

Einstein's picture of time .
He considered time beats differently across the entire Universe . 

                                                    Newton's v/s Einstein time scale .

" Motion through space even effects time . "

Hafele - Keating experiment .

The Hafele-Keating experiment was a test of the theory of relativity . In October 1971 , Joseph C.Hafele , a physicist , and Richard E Keating , an astronomer , took four cesium-beam atomic clocks aboard commercial airlines . They flew twice around the world , first eastward , then westward , and compared the clocks against others that remained at the United States Naval Observatory . When reunited , the three sets of clocks were found to disagree with one another , and their differences were consistent with the predictions of special and general relativity .  

                          Graphical representation of differences in clocks as measured . 

                                        Time differences predicted and measured .

Space and time which effects each other forms a never ending fabric called Space-time fabric in the 4 th Dimension . 

Continuous snapshots - Here event happening are shown in space and time in continuous pattern .


         Formation of the Universe in the continuous pattern as snapshots in the scale of time . 

Time - scale and events occurring at each time interval . 

Considering a slice it shows the different events happening in that slice .

                        Different events occurring in the slice of the space-time fabric .

                                                               Time slices .

Here the motion of the object effects its past and future .
Here comes the Time travelers .

                               Motion of the object effects its past and future . 

Gravity when used for time machine .
Stronger the gravity slower the time flows.
Weaker the gravity faster the time flows .

" Wormholes which open gateways in the UNIVERSE was considered as time machines . " 

                                            Wormholes and the Time travelers . 

" Black holes which has stronger gravity was also considered as time machine ."

                                        Black holes and wormholes as time travelers . 

        Arrow of Time .
      The arrow of time is the "one-way direction" (or) "asymmetry" of time .

                                          Arrow of time : Into the past and to the future .

                                                          Types of arrow of time .

The thermodynamic arrow of time : The thermodynamic arrow of time is provided by the Second Law of Thermodynamics , which says that in an isolated system , entropy tends to increase with time . Entropy can be thought of as a measure of microscopic disorder , thus the Second Law implies that time is asymmetrical with respect to the amount or order in as isolated system : as a system advances through time , it will statistically become more disordered .  

The Cosmological arrow of time : The cosmological arrow of time points in the direction of the universe's expansion . It may be linked to the thermodynamic arrow, with the universe heading towards a heat death ( Big chill ) as the amount of usable energy become negligible . Alternatively , it may be an artifact of our place in the universe's evolution , with this arrow reversing as gravity pulls everything back into a Big Crunch .

The quantum arrow of time : Quantum evolution is governed by the Schrodinger equation , which is time-symmetric , and by wave function collapse , which is time irreversible .

The psychological / perceptual arrow of time : A related mental arrow arises because one has the sense that one's perception is a continuous movement from the known (past) to the unknown (future) . Anticipating the unknown forms the psychological future which always seems to be something one is moving towards , but like a projection in a mirror , it make what is actually already a part of memory , such as desires , dreams and hopes , seem ahead of the observer .

                                              Arrows of time .

Wednesday, 25 February 2015

THE FABRIC OF COSMOS : ( Part 1 of 4 )

 What is Space ? 

This world is filled with stuff's that we see around . 
Space in which all these things / stuff's exists . 

If we take all the stuff's away , for example : - People , car etc ... and also even largest objects like planets to the smallest of subatomic particles . Then empty space is left , this is not nothing but it is something

Matter removed from earth

                             Empty space  left behind when the matter (      Earth ) is removed .


                   Planet  Earth .

But space can be bent , twisted and even rippled . 
Empty space forms world around us . 
Space is actually everywhere from atoms to galaxies . 

    Empty space in the vastness of the COSMOS ( UNIVERSE ) . Space in between the stars and        galaxies . 

                              Empty space shown in an hydrogen atom ( Microscopic scale ) .

                                     Empty space in an atom . ( Microscopic scale ) . 

If we remove all the space from the large object it will become very small . 

A large building with all the matter and space . 

         When space is removed from the mass ( large building ) , then this tiny mass is left behind .

Spinning in empty space . 

If in spinning when arms are stretched it is spinning with respect to space itself . 

      Spinning in air while arms is stretched , spinning with respect to the emptiness of space itself .   

Issac Newton . 
We still use Newton's law based on space mission and etc . 

Space is real even if we can't feel it . 

In 1800's Albert Einstein changed everything about space . 

What is light ?
What is the speed of light ? 

Consider a moving car . 

                                                Car moving at the normal speed . 

                                            Car moving at the speed of light . 

Moving car doesn't give extra push to the light .( Headlight of the car ) 
Light speed is always constant for everyone . 
Moving at the speed of light makes the car become tiny ( compressed ) and moves slower in time for the observer outside the car , but for person sitting inside it appears to be normal . 
" Space-time forms a fabric . " 

                                                                  Space - time fabric . 

Space - time are flexible . Then Einstein called it space - time . 

Einstein applied this to gravity .
Then how did gravity worked ?

After 10 years of work Einstein explained the gravity , Gravity is even more flexible .

 Space - time fabric . Here object are bound to the central object due to the curvature of the space . 

            Earth is revolving around the Sun due to the curvature of the space - time fabric .  

Earth revolves around space-time fabric which Sun creates. 
" These described entire Universe , space plays a leading role and space is fabric and flexible " 

Black holes have large mass and a strong gravity . 

A black hole named Cygnus X-1 . It is formed when a large star caved in . This black hole pulls matter from blue star beside it . 

Gravity Probe B . 

Gravity Probe B ( GP - B) is a satellite-based mission which launched on 20 April 2004 on a Delta 2 rocket. The spaceflight phase lasted until 2005 , its aim was to measure space-time curvature near Earth , and thereby the stress-energy tensor (which is related to the distribution and the motion of matter in space ) in and near Earth . This provided a test of general relativity , gravito magnetism and related models .

Total cost of project : $ 750 million . 

Gravity probe B comprised four London moment gyroscope and a reference telescope sighted on HR8703 .

Space is real like a fabric .
No space then there will be no twist .

Quantum world . 

Smallest objects like sub-atomic particles .
Even if we remove all space its still far from empty .
Particles erupt (or) appears from nothing . Particles emitted from nowhere .

In 1948 a scientist named Henry Casmir predicted , if two plates placed extremely closed to each other then the thickness of a paper .

II : Very thin spacing in between the plates A and B . Space I and III pushes the plates until they merge .
Actually particles are present in the space I and III which pushes the plates in the Quantum world .

When these plates placed parallel to each other in Quantum world , with the emptiness between the plates . Then the particles outside the plates push the plates until they merge .

CERN Geneva . 

 LHC  : Large hadron collider is a $ 10 billion dollars project . 
It is a particle accelerator , where particles move at 99.99 % of speed of light . 

                                        Particles colliding at 99 % of speed of light .

   In 1964 Peter higgs said .
   All particles have different masses and why so ?

   " Space is like  ocean , particles gain mass when they interact with this ocean . "

     Particles which moves with great difficulty in the space gains more mass and hence gravity         compared to the ones which moves easily .
Higgs-field is everywhere even in emptiness of space , but there is no physical proof for Higgs field .

                                         Higgs particle and Higgs field . 


Universe expanded in a fraction of seconds . 
Gravity eventually stopped the speed of expansion . 
Will space expand forever ?
Will gravity slows and big crunch will happen ?

                                    BIG - BANG model of the UNIVERSE . 

                                   BIG - CRUNCH model of the UNIVERSE . 

Super-Nova is a very rare event which occurs with an explosion which is very bright .

                                                       Super - Nova explosion . 

It was confirmed by Telescope that Universe was expanding . Dark energy pushes ( 70 %  of Universe is Dark - Energy ) .
70 % is empty space in Universe .

                                         Dark Energy pushing the Space apart . 

Einstein gave a cosmological constant to solve the big-bang and big-crunch problem in order to get the static Universe ( Antigravity ) .
Later Einstein said it was a mistake , his greatest blunder .

                               Cosmological constant Lambda as shown in the equation . 

" Hubble proved that Universe was expanding , thus Einstein's cosmological constant was removed      and it was called his greatest blunder . "

Cosmological constant may explain expansion of Universe .
Dark energy pushes further apart until Universe is alone and empty - space is left behind .
Even atoms rip apart because of increase in dark energy in space .

             Graphical representation of the expansion of the UNIVERSE . 

Space can be a hologram . 

If object falls into the black hole it forms a 3D information inside it , where it is completely lost . 
Even if the information of object is held in the 2D at the surface of black holes . 

                                                             Black hole .

Universe can be a Hologram . 

 3D information may be present inside the Universe and 2D information is present outside the Universe . 

"3D is an illusion or 2D is the ultimate reality ??? "

                                                     Holographic Universe . ( 0's and 1's information ) 

" Space is a familiar stranger . 
   space is all around us but we are still far from having unmasked its true reality . "