Monday, 23 March 2015

THE FABRIC OF COSMOS : ( Part 4 of 4 )

Universe (or) Multiverse ? 

A city may be a home to many million people all may be unique .
Uniqueness were never questioned .

                                                                  People in the City .

But nothing is Unique .
It can be the duplicates of everything and where are they ?
Our Universe may not be alone but other Universes may have been born all the time .

                                                           Multiverse : Many Universes .

All may differ with the other , but some similarities even exists .
Multiverse may be the final step of COSMOS .

                                        Bubble Universes : Every disk is a bubble Universe .

Aristotle showed that earth is the center of the Universe .

                                                   Aristotle Earth centered Universe .

Galileo and Copernicus showed sun is the center of the Universe .

                                                              Sun centered Universe . 

  Multiverse may require drastic changes (or) else is it the dead end ???
 How did the idea of multiverse came from ???

Big-bang occured round 14 billion years ago .
As a result universe still expanding .
How did big-bang happen ?
Hence here came the idea of multiverse .

                                                                      Big-bang explosion .

Alan Guth at MIT in 1974 showed .
How particles form in early Universe ?

Extreme environment at the very early stages of Universe , gravity can be reversed instead of attraction it was repulsive .

                                                 Galaxies forming with the molecule .

Then space expanded and obeyed big-bang theory .
He called big-bang's as inflation .

                                        Alan Guth's Inflation model of the UNIVERSE . 

Inflation could be tested in night sky .
If we remove all the things in night sky we find the energy remains of the big-bang called COSMIC Microwave Background . 

                                           COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND .

       Cosmic microwave background at its temperature changes . ( Hotter and colder parts :          Imprints ) .

Cosmic microwave background resembled the imprints .

In 1989 - NASA tested inflation .
Temperature on the COSMOS mapped to the " Theory of inflation " .
This was a milestone discovery .
Equations had a shocking secrets of existence of the MULTIVERSE .

Andrei Linde proposed a more eternal chaotic inflation . .

Chaotic inflation occurs in a much broader class of theories, without any need for the assumption of initial thermal equilibrium. The basic principles of this scenario became incorporated in most of the presently existing realistic versions of inflationary theory. Chaotic inflation changed the way we think about the beginning of inflation.

                                              Andrei Linde Eternal chaotic inflation .

How did inflation start ?
What will happen at the end of inflation ?

Some parts may still have inflation , so it was considered that many big-bang occurred .
Every new big-bang when occurs then a new Universe forms .
They called it External Inflation .
External Inflation may continue forever .

                            Cheese ( Consider this as Universe before the stars formed ) .

                                                                        Small cheese .

                                                                         Big cheese .

Here energy is discharged in space when the small cheese is converted to big one .

" E is converted to m . Energy is converted to mass . "

Hence the birth of Universe big-bang .

Space sometimes expands slowly .
Here a cheese is cut before everything formed even the stars .

                                      Energy can discharge and create more Universes .

                                Here multiverse are formed as in cheese . This is a simple analogy .

Here each hole can be considered as a Universe .

But there was no way to detect Multi Universes .
Light can't travel from one Universe to another .

Alan refused to continue on this .

Andrei Linde was working on multiverse and published papers .

Multiverse had 2 concepts .
1) Quantum mechanics .
2) Expansion of Universe .

Universe was thought to expand slowly because of gravity of starts .
But found expansion is speeding up .
There must be energy and space which is pushing .

Universe to expand and called this energy as "dark energy" .
What was the strength of dark energy ?

This may be resolved by multiverse .

Quantum mechanics -> Microscope sub-atomic particles release energy .

The energy found by dark energy was ,
0. followed by 120 zeros than 1 . = 0.0000000............(120 zero's)...........0000001 .

Slightly altering the decimal place in dark energy may change Universe completely .
Why so less dark energy was produced ?

Theoretical and practical predictions of dark energy presents that its still a mystery .

In multiverse dark energy may sound sensible .
If many Universes exists then any one of that Universe will match the energy (dark energy) number  0.00000..........(120 zero's).......000001 .

                                                                        Dark energy .

Universe had less dark energy then it will collapse .
Universe had more dark energy then there would be no formation of stars and galaxies .

String theory was a solution of mystery of dark energy .
Everything was made of strings , vibrations of strings explain everything .

They found extra dimensions of space in string theory .
6-dimensions was found which was microscopic

                                             6-Dimension Calabi-yau Space structure . 

At every part of space these microscopic dimensions were present which explains fundamental feature of nature .

This was like DNA of the Universe which explained everything in the Universe .
Many 6-D were found , a total of 10^500 possible shapes of extra dimensions which are equally valuable .

String-theory exactly fits mutiverse at very diverse way .

Dark energy varied from Universe to Universe .
String theory solved this problem .

Now there exists 3 things which could explain multiverse . 

1) Dark energy .
2) External inflation .
3) String theory .

Travelling to other Universes .

1) Some may be different from us .
2) In some there may be no mass , no matter .
3) Some may be like us .
4) Some may be completely different .
5) In some there may be multitasking people .
6) In some there can be duplicate of everything and everyone .

Consider playing deck of cards.
Infinitely playing deck of cards then each player can get certain repeats of cards ,

                                                                        Deck of cards . 

Why is all this dark energy ?

Why are we on this planet Earth ?

Kepler tried to find the reason for the existence of earth in this orbit but didn't get the answer and was unsuccessful as we can't know it is still a mystery .

                                                                    Kepler Telescope .

Should we believe multiverse without experiment ?

But maths predicted everything even multiverse .

                Universe colliding in a Multiverse .

                                                   Ripples in Cosmic microwave background .

In 2 Universes collision then these produced ripples in the resultant imprints : Cosmic Microwave Background .

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