Tuesday, 3 March 2015

THE FABRIC OF COSMOS : ( Part 2 of 4 )

The illusion of Time . 

 How does the time flow ?
  What is time ?

 Cesium clocks 

These are the most accurate commercially produced time and frequency standards , and serve as the primary standard for the definition of the second in SI ( the metric system ) . 
Cesium clocks are used to measure time . 

   F1 the master Cesium clock at NIST in Boulder , Colorado . Location : Boulder , CO        Photographed  : 17 April , 2009 .

                                                                   Cesium atomic clock . 

When we travel then we take time as the origin and consider all the events on the scale of time . 

             Basic time scale where distance moved is measured with the passage of time . 

Newton's picture of time .
Time runs same for all the objects in the entire Universe . 

Einstein's picture of time .
He considered time beats differently across the entire Universe . 

                                                    Newton's v/s Einstein time scale .

" Motion through space even effects time . "

Hafele - Keating experiment .

The Hafele-Keating experiment was a test of the theory of relativity . In October 1971 , Joseph C.Hafele , a physicist , and Richard E Keating , an astronomer , took four cesium-beam atomic clocks aboard commercial airlines . They flew twice around the world , first eastward , then westward , and compared the clocks against others that remained at the United States Naval Observatory . When reunited , the three sets of clocks were found to disagree with one another , and their differences were consistent with the predictions of special and general relativity .  

                          Graphical representation of differences in clocks as measured . 

                                        Time differences predicted and measured .

Space and time which effects each other forms a never ending fabric called Space-time fabric in the 4 th Dimension . 

Continuous snapshots - Here event happening are shown in space and time in continuous pattern .


         Formation of the Universe in the continuous pattern as snapshots in the scale of time . 

Time - scale and events occurring at each time interval . 

Considering a slice it shows the different events happening in that slice .

                        Different events occurring in the slice of the space-time fabric .

                                                               Time slices .

Here the motion of the object effects its past and future .
Here comes the Time travelers .

                               Motion of the object effects its past and future . 

Gravity when used for time machine .
Stronger the gravity slower the time flows.
Weaker the gravity faster the time flows .

" Wormholes which open gateways in the UNIVERSE was considered as time machines . " 

                                            Wormholes and the Time travelers . 

" Black holes which has stronger gravity was also considered as time machine ."

                                        Black holes and wormholes as time travelers . 

        Arrow of Time .
      The arrow of time is the "one-way direction" (or) "asymmetry" of time .

                                          Arrow of time : Into the past and to the future .

                                                          Types of arrow of time .

The thermodynamic arrow of time : The thermodynamic arrow of time is provided by the Second Law of Thermodynamics , which says that in an isolated system , entropy tends to increase with time . Entropy can be thought of as a measure of microscopic disorder , thus the Second Law implies that time is asymmetrical with respect to the amount or order in as isolated system : as a system advances through time , it will statistically become more disordered .  

The Cosmological arrow of time : The cosmological arrow of time points in the direction of the universe's expansion . It may be linked to the thermodynamic arrow, with the universe heading towards a heat death ( Big chill ) as the amount of usable energy become negligible . Alternatively , it may be an artifact of our place in the universe's evolution , with this arrow reversing as gravity pulls everything back into a Big Crunch .

The quantum arrow of time : Quantum evolution is governed by the Schrodinger equation , which is time-symmetric , and by wave function collapse , which is time irreversible .

The psychological / perceptual arrow of time : A related mental arrow arises because one has the sense that one's perception is a continuous movement from the known (past) to the unknown (future) . Anticipating the unknown forms the psychological future which always seems to be something one is moving towards , but like a projection in a mirror , it make what is actually already a part of memory , such as desires , dreams and hopes , seem ahead of the observer .

                                              Arrows of time .

Ludwig Boltzmann : He gave Entropy formula .

                                                 Boltzmann's entropy equation . 

Every system transform from ordered to disordered state .

As the arrow of time flows as time passes entropy increases .

At the beginning of time what were the Initial conditions .
There was low entropy at the Big - bang :- It was in ordered state of all physics .
" 13.7 billion years ago Big - band occurred ."

Far future of time - 

  • Expanding Universe speed up with time ( accelerating ) , our galaxy is in the middle of  nothing .
  • Universe will expand forever .
  • Universe will eventually reverses and the Universe re collapses , ultimately ending as a  black hole singularity (or) causing a reformation of the Universe starting with another big bang .

                                             Fate of the UNIVERSE , its future . 

Do Black holes dominate the COSMOS .
At the far end random particles dominate the space .

 " Is the flow of time is like flow of river ." 

                                                Time flowing like a river . 

                    " This is beyond experience of reality . "

Important Links : 

1)  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_clock

2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hafele%E2%80%93Keating_experiment

3) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wormhole

4) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole

5) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arrow_of_time

6) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boltzmann%27s_entropy_formula

7)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpgGJaQfrgE

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