Monday, 23 March 2015

THE FABRIC OF COSMOS : ( Part 3 of 4 )

Quantum Mechanics .

These unlocked the mystery of how the Universe works .

New laws have transformed world .

Laws of Quantum mechanics which differ from the laws applied to massive objects .
These laws are applied to smaller / tiny microscope things .

Quantum laws are more obvious at atomic world .
They may be telling the reality .

Classical mechanics were old laws by newton .

                                            Prism splits the light into its constituents . 

Neil's Bohr model . 

The Rutherford-Bohr model (or) Bohr model , introduced by Niels Bohr in 1913 , depicts the atom as a small , positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus - similar in structure to the solar system , but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity .
Definite orbit of electrons only .
Electrons orbits in definite orbits only and free will is not allowed .

                                        Bohr atomic model .

Quantum leap .

When electrons travel from lower orbit to higher it absorbs light : packets of energy (Quanta) . Discrete packets of energy which are quantised , light is emitted in "quanta" .

                                             Hydrogen atom .   

                                                        Energy of photon emitted .

                                     Energy emitted as per Bohr's atomic model . 

 Bohr and Einstein were naturally on a argument over quantum world and relativity .

Famous double slit experiment . 

In 1920's famous double slit experiment was performed . 
When beam of electrons were passed through two slits instead of two patches of images there came alternating dark and light patches . 

                                                       Double slit experiment . 

Thus particles were considered to travel in the form of waves . 
Wave nature of light . 

                                                         Wave nature of light . 

                                                 Double slit wave nature of light . 

Schrodinger derived a wave equation . 

                                                       Schrodinger equation .

Max born suggested that may be probability , were the wave is higher there electrons are more . 
Were we find dark patches there wave is higher and concentration of electron is higher . 

Exact position of electron was unknown . 

Its all about probability .
Probability of winning in a Casino , its a game of chance . 

All the Universe is made up of atoms which are governed by probability . 

Einstein did not believe probability and called it " God does not throw dice " . 

Inventions in electronics was due to Quantum mechanics .
Without Quantum mechanics its was all dark ages . 

Bohr's double slit experiment was a probability of finding particles ( Act of measurements ) 

Einstein thought something was missing form " Quantum mechanics " .

In 1935 Einstein proved " Entanglement " . 

                                                      Quantum Entanglement . 

 Quantum entanglement : is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the Quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently—instead, a quantum state may be given for the system as a whole.

Particles remain entanglement even when they are separated over long distances . 

                                             Entangled pairs with opposite spins .

Two particles have opposite spin , but they are not physically connected . 
If we know the spin of one electron then it can be said the other electron must have opposite spin even if they are separated by a long distances . 
This can be just like pair of gloves .

                                                             Left and Right Gloves .

If left is at one place then other should be Right , however long distance they are separated .
Quantum entanglement works just this way if one spin is known then immediately other spin is known .

Quantum mechanics was considered " Philosophy" .

John Bell book solved Einstein and Bohr conflicts .

How do we communicate between entanglement particles ?

John Francis Clauser graduate student read John Bell book , he was surprised and proved math is right and entanglement is possible . 

Can entanglement transfer people from one place to another without actually travelling through space ?
Is Teleportation the Future ?

Photons - Particles of light . 

A pair of photons were made to prove entanglement . 

                                                        Quantum Teleportation .

Atom B and Atom C are entangled and separated by a greater distance .

Consider Human as example . (Teleportation) .

    Human is scanned to form a part particles .

                                    Particles formed as a result of Scanning . ( Location : Newyork ).

                              Human appearing at the other side from the scanned particles .
                                                               ( Location : London ) .

Here a scanner scanner scans the human body and converts it to corresponding particles at a certain location like : Newyork , and then this particles is teleported to London .
Reconstructed in London by measuring quantum state .
Information traveled long distance .

MIT -> Manchester Institute of Technology .

They are developing Quantum computers which speaks in bits (0/1) .

Quantum bits => 0 to 1 .

                                                               Quantum Computation .

Probability of getting out and to explore the position by quantum computers .

May be some details are missing in Quantum mechanics .

                                                                    Quantum Level .

Quantum world may prove many Parallel Universe .

Discovery of Quantum mechanics has revealed reality for understanding the " FABRIC OF COSMOS " .

Important Links .

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