Friday, 11 May 2018

The Enigma of Extraterrestrials and space travels :- Part ( 2 of 3 )

Interstellar travel challenges .

Encounters with the aliens have aroused questions in everyone , If they have to visit us travelling long distances in a short span of time it can only be possible if they were able to overcome some of the interstellar space travel challenges .

The major challenge is the weight of the fuel and the speed , both should have a balance in order to propagate for longer distance without fuel getting run out .

Space Vehicle Fuels .

 1)      Solar sail . 

        These are large surface on which photons are bounced and momentum is transferred for Sail propagation .

        Ideally p=mv , but photons have no mass . But this works well if we consider Einsteins E=mc^2.
        Where Energy of photons may transfer into mass and which propagates the sail using P=mv .

       When we consider solar wind which consists of billions of protons , photons and electrons in the form of solar wind these can be captured by E-SAILS and move just like sail boats on earth use regular wind .

       Voyager 1 reached Heliospere in 35 years , but Solar sail may reach this in 10 years . 

Solar sail

      2)      Nuclear energy .

Nuclear propulsions are caused by heating the liquid hydrogen propellants and which inturn ejects hydrogen gas at a high speed propelling the Nuclear thermal rocket engine at high velocity compared to traditional chemical rockets .

Impulse time of Nuclear engine is high compared to chemical engine .
Isp – Nuclear 900 sec  >>  Isp – Chemical 450 sec  ,  Isp – Impulse time .

RD 0410 Nuclear thermal rocket engine was developed using liquid hydrogen propellants .

Copernicus Mars transfer vehicle . 

Copernicus Mars transfer vehicle .

Copernicus Mars transfer vehicle - detailed structure .

          3)      Matter + Antimatter .

                 Antimatter is opposite of matter i.e having opposite properties .
                In the dawn of nuclear physics , scientist Paul dirac suggested the existence of antimatter .
                If X^2 = 4 , then X = 2 , -2 . This analogy proved that there must be another kind of matter in the universe which is the opposite of matter .

               Now challenge is how to produce and trap these antimatter .
               It has been shown that when matter and antimatter collide , then there is an enormous    release of energy in the process call Annihilation and this can be use to propagate the space vehicles .

              But the major problem is to control these energy release . 

Matter and Anti-matter collisions . 

Particle and Antiparticle .

Annihilation process .

Evil twins .

Antimatter Rocket .

         4)      Wrap drive + Black hole .
    Faster than light travel possible if remained still on a flat piece of space time inside a wrap bubble that was made to move at super luminal velocity .
    Cosmic inflation at the beginning of the creation where the speeds reached much greater than the speed of light .

    Wrap effect uses gravitational effects to compress the spacetime in front of a spacecraft  then expand the space time behind it . 

    The bit of spacetime within the wrap  bubble is flat so that spacecraft would float at zero g along the wave of compressed and expanded spacetime .

    Net effect is like surfing , where you are nearly stationary with respect to the wave , but  trending with the speed of the wave .

    Superluminal wrap drives require negative energy and pressure to form and maintain the wrap bubble .

    Empty space behind starship would be made to expand rapidly , pushing the craft in a  forward direction , here traveler perceive movement despite complete lack of acceleration .

   Using blackhole to harness energy to wrap drive .

   Create small blackhole in front of ship for space wrap . 

Wrap drive .

Wrap drive travel .

Blackholes .

             These kind of fuels can be used for the interstellar space travel , but if we do have the Alien encounters like alien sightings then it just ponders our mind of how would these species be so advanced to reach out by travelling such a long distances ?
              Do these advanced beings  have mastered the future techs or else there are some cosmic phenomenon that we are still unaware of which helps these beings for interstellar travels ......


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